Going 'off script': The influence of instrument constituencies on the Europeanisation of Turkish water policy

Burçin Demirbilek
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Çankırı Karatekin University, Çankırı, Turkey; bdemirbilek@karatekin.edu.tr

Oscar Fitch-Roy
Centre for Geography and Environmental Science and Centre for European Governance, University of Exeter, UK; o.fitch-roy@exeter.ac.uk

David Benson
Environment and Sustainability Institute and the Department of Politics, University of Exeter, UK; d.i.benson@exeter.ac.uk

Jenny Fairbrass
Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, UK; j.fairbrass@uea.ac.uk

ABSTRACT: The European Union (EU) has established a major role in directing policy change both internally and beyond its borders, a phenomenon known as Europeanisation. This article examines the Europeanisation of water policy in Turkey in relation to implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Although some principles of EU water policy have been adopted in Turkey, the WFD has also been subject to significant domestic modification, prompting questions about how and why such patterns of partial implementation occur. In this respect, learning and socialisation within transnational 'instrument constituencies' (ICs) is shown to be an important explanatory factor. It follows that diffusion of EU water policy and the WFD beyond its borders may be enhanced by promoting the capacity for instrument constituency learning – or the 'cognitive environment' – in non-EU countries.

KEYWORDS: Water Framework Directive, instrument constituencies, policy diffusion, social learning, Europeanisation, Turkey